A study of the basic accounting concepts and procedures underlying the organization and reporting of financial information. Topics include the accounting cycle, the preparation of financial statements, the measurement and reporting of business income, and the valuation and presentation of assets and current liabilities. Emphasis is placed on the relevance of the business and economic information generated by the accounting process and how it is used in personal and business decision making.
Because practitioners of the statistical analysis often address particular applied decision problems, methods developments is consequently motivated by the search to a better decision making under uncertainties.
Decision making process under uncertainty is largely based on application of statistical data analysis for probabilistic risk assessment of your decision. Managers need to understand variation for two key reasons.
First, so that they can lead others to apply statistical thinking in day to day activities and secondly, to apply the concept for the purpose of continuous improvement. This course will provide you with hands-on experience to promote the use of statistical thinking and techniques to apply them to make educated decisions whenever there is variation in business data.
Therefore, it is a course in statistical thinking via a data-oriented approach. Statistical models are currently used in various fields of business and science.
However, the terminology differs from field to field. For example, the fitting of models to data, called calibration, history matching, and data assimilation, are all synonymous with parameter estimation.
Your organization database contains a wealth of information, yet the decision technology group members tap a fraction of it.
Employees waste time scouring multiple sources for a database. The decision-makers are frustrated because they cannot get business-critical data exactly when they need it.
Therefore, too many decisions are based on guesswork, not facts. Many opportunities are also missed, if they are even noticed at all.
Knowledge is what we know well. Information is the communication of knowledge. In every knowledge exchange, there is a sender and a receiver. The sender make common what is private, does the informing, the communicating. Information can be classified as explicit and tacit forms.
The explicit information can be explained in structured form, while tacit information is inconsistent and fuzzy to explain. Know that data are only crude information and not knowledge by themselves. Data is known to be crude information and not knowledge by itself.
The sequence from data to knowledge is: Data becomes information, when it becomes relevant to your decision problem. Information becomes fact, when the data can support it. Facts are what the data reveals. However the decisive instrumental i.
Fact becomes knowledge, when it is used in the successful completion of a decision process. Once you have a massive amount of facts integrated as knowledge, then your mind will be superhuman in the same sense that mankind with writing is superhuman compared to mankind before writing.
The following figure illustrates the statistical thinking process based on data in constructing statistical models for decision making under uncertainties. The above figure depicts the fact that as the exactness of a statistical model increases, the level of improvements in decision-making increases.
That's why we need statistical data analysis. Statistical data analysis arose from the need to place knowledge on a systematic evidence base. This required a study of the laws of probability, the development of measures of data properties and relationships, and so on.
Statistical inference aims at determining whether any statistical significance can be attached that results after due allowance is made for any random variation as a source of error. Intelligent and critical inferences cannot be made by those who do not understand the purpose, the conditions, and applicability of the various techniques for judging significance.
Considering the uncertain environment, the chance that "good decisions" are made increases with the availability of "good information. The above figure also illustrates the fact that as the exactness of a statistical model increases, the level of improvements in decision-making increases.
Knowledge is more than knowing something technical. Wisdom is the power to put our time and our knowledge to the proper use.
Wisdom comes with age and experience. Wisdom is the accurate application of accurate knowledge and its key component is to knowing the limits of your knowledge. Wisdom is about knowing how something technical can be best used to meet the needs of the decision-maker.Data modeling is the process of documenting a complex software system design as an easily understood diagram, using text and symbols to represent the way data needs to flow.
The diagram can be used as a blueprint for the construction of new software or for re-engineering a legacy application. Object Oriented Data Modeling for Data Warehousing adoption rate of intranet and extranet data warehouses (i.e., Web warehouses) has exhibited a similar pattern, although the UML Profile for Modeling DWH Usage for modeling the different kinds of DWH usage on a conceptual level.
It uses features of UML intended for the purpose of. Aarhus University (AU) offers interdisciplinary study programmes within a wide range of academic fields, covering basic research, applied research, strategic research and research-based consultancy. Since the conceptual model focuses on the main data objects and avoids detail, it exhibits both software and hardware independence.
The most widely used conceptual model is the Entity Relationship (E-R) model, which yields the basic database blueprint. Complexity characterises the behaviour of a system or model whose components interact in multiple ways and follow local rules, meaning there is no reasonable higher instruction to define the various possible interactions..
The term is generally used to characterize something with many parts where those parts interact with each other in multiple ways, culminating in a higher order of emergence.
Conceptual data model: The highest-level view containing the least detail. Its value is showing overall scope of the model and portraying the system architecture. For a system of smaller scope, it may not be necessary to draw.
Instead, start with the logical model. Logical data model: Contains more detail than a conceptual model. More detailed operational and transactional entities are now defined.