Research data Income inequality and limitations of the gini index:
In the Democratic Republic of the Congo, girls are outnumbered two to one. For example, in Nigeriachildren are socialized into their specific gender role as soon as their parents know their gender.
Men are the preferred gender and are encouraged to engage in computer and scientific learning while the women learn domestic skills. These gender roles are deep rooted within the state, however, with the increase of westernized education within Nigeria, there has been a recent increase in women having the ability to receive an equal education.
There is still much to be changed, though. Nigeria still needs policies that encourage educational attainment for men and women based on merit, rather than gender.
Attacks include kidnappings, bombings, torture, rape and murder. In Somaliagirls have been abducted. In Colombiathe Democratic Republic of the Congo, and Libya students were reported to have been raped and harassed. With marginal variables between most countries, women have a lower employment rate, are unemployed longer, are paid less and have less secure jobs.
First for being young, in the difficult phase of transition between training and working life, in an age group that has, on an average, twice the jobless rate or older workers and are at the mercy of employers who exploit them under the pretext of enabling them to acquire professional experience.
Secondly they are discriminated against for being women and are more likely to be offered low paying or low status jobs.
Belenky and colleagues conducted research which found that there was an inconsistency between the kind of knowledge appealing to women and the kind of knowledge being taught in most educational institutions. Particularly in Latin Americathe difference is attributed to prominence of gangs and violence attracting male youth.
The gangs pull the males in, distracting them from school and causing them to drop out. Dropout rates for males has also increased over the years in all racial groups, especially in African Americans. They have exceeded the number of high school and college dropout rates than any other racial ethnicity for the past 30 years.
A majority of the research found that males were primarily the most "left behind" in education because of higher graduation dropout rates, lower test scores, and failing grades. They found that as males get older, primarily from ages 9 to 17, they are less likely to be labeled "proficient" in reading and mathematics than girls were.
In general, males arrive in kindergarten much less ready and prepared for schooling than females. This creates a gap that continually increases over time into middle and high school. Nationally, there are boys in 9th grade for every girls, and among African American males, there are boys for every girls.
States have discovered that 9th grade has become one of the biggest drop out years.Identifying the Boundaries. Subsaharan Africa includes the African countries south of the Sahara Desert.
The African Transition Zone cuts across the southern edge of the Sahara Desert at the widest portion of the continent.
Many of the countries in the African Transition Zone are included in the realm of Subsaharan Africa. It examines the multiple and countervailing effects of migration on schooling in the context of substantial migration and limited educational opportunities for blacks in South Africa. The receipt of remittances substantially increases black children's school attendance, but has no such effect for whites.
In every society, from the hunting and gathering society to the postindustrial society, the most common basis for social stratification has been _____. Gender The trend in the United States in which most poor families are headed by women is called ________.
While the dismantling of apartheid in led to a concerted effort to democratize South Africa and produce radical changes that would result in racial equality, this proved difficult to achieve because of the extent of racism that apartheid ingrained in the economic, social, and political structures.
Social stratification based on ascription or birth The ending of apartheid in South Africa has led to what? Little improvement for millions of poor black people. What was once a racial divide has now become a class divide — although, of course, the two are linked in South Africa by racism and limits on education and social mobility.
It is also disturbing that the new government-built houses are often indistinguishable from the bare-bones houses of the apartheid era.