By Rakesh Kochhar and Richard Fry The Great Recession, fueled by the crises in the housing and financial markets, was universally hard on the net worth of American families. But even as the economic recovery has begun to mend asset prices, not all households have benefited alike, and wealth inequality has widened along racial and ethnic lines.
Solid lines show historical data from to ; dashed lines show projections of historical trends to Any material flow analysis of this kind requires multiple assumptions or simplifications, which are listed in Materials and Methods, and is subject to considerable uncertainty; as such, all cumulative results are rounded to the nearest Mt.
The largest sources of uncertainty are the lifetime distributions of the product categories and the plastic incineration and recycling rates outside of Europe and the United States.
The growth of plastics production in the past 65 years has substantially outpaced any other manufactured material.
The same properties that make plastics so versatile in innumerable applications—durability and resistance to degradation—make these materials difficult or impossible for nature to assimilate. Thus, without a well-designed and tailor-made management strategy for end-of-life plastics, humans are conducting a singular uncontrolled experiment on a global scale, in which billions of metric tons of material will accumulate across all major terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems on the planet.
The relative advantages and disadvantages of dematerialization, substitution, reuse, material recycling, waste-to-energy, and conversion technologies must be carefully considered to design the best solutions to the environmental challenges posed by the enormous and sustained global growth in plastics production and use.
Global breakdowns of total production by polymer type and industrial use sector were derived from annual market and polymer data for North America, Europe, China, and India table S2 121319 — Polymer type and industrial use sector breakdowns of polymer production are similar across countries and regions.
Global additives production data, which are not publicly available, were acquired from market research companies and cross-checked for consistency table S3 17 Additives data are available for to Polymer type and industrial use sector breakdowns of polymer production and the additives to polymer fraction were both stable over the time period for which data are available and thus assumed constant throughout the modeling period of — Any errors in the early decades were mitigated by the lower production rates in those years.
Additives data were organized by additive type and industrial use sector and integrated with the polymer data. Pi t denotes the amount of primary plastics that is, polymers plus additives produced in year t and used in sector i fig.
Plastic waste generation and fate Plastics use was characterized by discretized log-normal distributions, LTDi jwhich denotes the fraction of plastics in industrial use sector i used for j years Fig.
Mean values and SDs were gathered from published literature table S4 2225 — Product lifetimes may vary significantly across economies and also across demographic groups, which is why distributions were used and sensitivity analysis was conducted with regard to mean product lifetimes. Examples are cumulative primary production and cumulative primary plastic waste generation, Fig.
Recycling, incineration, and discard rates Time series for resin, that is, nonfiber recycling, incineration, and discard rates were collected separately for four world regions: Detailed and comprehensive solid waste management data for the United States were published by the U.
Environmental Protection Agency dating back to table S7 European data were from several reports by PlasticsEurope, which collectively cover to 1213 Chinese data were synthesized and reconciled from the English version of the China Statistical Yearbook, translations of Chinese publications and government reports, and additional waste management literature 353639 — Waste management for the rest of the world was based on World Bank data Time series for global recycling, incineration, and discard rates fig.
S5 were derived by adding the rates of the four regions weighted by their relative contribution to global plastic waste generation. In many world regions, waste management data were sparse and of poor quality. For this reason, sensitivity analysis with regard to waste management rates was conducted.
The resulting global nonfiber recycling rate increased at a constant 0. The global nonfiber incineration rate has grown more unevenly but, on average, increased 0. Assuming an annual increase of 0. The dashed lines in Fig.
There is currently no significant recycling of synthetic fibers. It was thus assumed that end-of-life textiles are incinerated and discarded together with all other municipal solid waste. Global primary plastics production in million metric tons according to industrial use sector from to Global primary plastics production in million metric tons according to polymer type from to Global primary plastics waste generation in million metric tons according to industrial use sector from to Global primary plastics waste generation in million metric tons according to polymer type from to HeartMath Institute Research Library.
We invite you to browse the HeartMath Institute’s extensive collection of research studies, articles and other materials. Technology news, trends, research and analysis covering the digital world and how it affects you.
Technology news, trends, research and analysis covering the digital world and how it affects you. June – Motivation Levels among Traditional and Open Learning Undergraduate Students in India. Type or paste a DOI name into the text box.
Click Go. Your browser will take you to a Web page (URL) associated with that DOI name. Send questions or comments to doi. Using Formative Assessment to Improve Student Achievement in the Core Content Areas. Robyn Madison-Harris and Ada Muoneke.