Product classification[ edit ] A product can be classified as tangible or intangible. A tangible product is a physical object that can be perceived by touch such as a building, vehicle, gadget, or clothing. An intangible product is a product that can only be perceived indirectly such as an insurance policy. Services can be broadly classified under intangible products which can be durable or non durable.
Guide to Antitrust Laws Manufacturer-imposed Requirements Reasonable price, territory, and customer restrictions on dealers are legal. Manufacturer-imposed requirements can benefit consumers by increasing competition among different brands interbrand competition even while reducing competition among dealers in the same brand intrabrand competition.
For instance, an agreement between a manufacturer and dealer to set maximum or "ceiling" prices prevents dealers from charging a non-competitive price. Or an agreement to set minimum or "floor" prices or to limit territories may encourage dealers to provide a level of service that the manufacturer wants to offer to consumers when they buy the product.
These benefits must be weighed against any reduction in competition from the restrictions. Until recently, courts treated minimum resale price policies differently from those setting maximum resale Product offering definition.
But inthe Supreme Court determined that all manufacturer-imposed vertical price programs should be evaluated using a Product offering definition of reason approach. According to the Court, "Absent vertical price restraints, the retail services that enhance interbrand competition might be underprovided.
This is because discounting retailers can free ride on retailers who furnish services and then capture some of the increased demand those services generate. If a manufacturer, on its own, adopts a policy regarding a desired level of prices, the law allows the manufacturer to deal only with retailers who agree to that policy.
A manufacturer also may stop dealing with a retailer that does not follow its resale price policy. That is, a manufacturer can implement a dealer policy on a "take it or leave it" basis.
These agreements may result in better sales efforts and service in the dealer's assigned area, and, as a result, more competition with other brands. Antitrust issues may arise if a manufacturer agrees with competing manufacturers to impose price or non-price restraints up or down the supply chain that is, in dealings with suppliers or dealersor if suppliers or dealers act together to induce a manufacturer to implement such restraints.
Again, the critical distinction is between a unilateral decision to impose a restraint lawful and a collective agreement among competitors to do the same unlawful. For example, a group of car dealers threatened not to sell one make of cars unless the manufacturer allocated new cars on the basis of sales made to customers in each dealer's territory.
The FTC found the dealers' actions unreasonable and designed primarily to stop one dealer from selling at low "no haggle" prices and via the Internet to customers all over the country. Determining whether a restraint is "vertical" or "horizontal" can be confusing in some markets, particularly where some manufacturers operate at many different levels and may even supply important inputs to their competitors.
The label is not as important as the effect: Does the restraint unreasonably reduce competition among competitors at any level? Is the vertical restraint the product of an agreement among competitors?
And labeling an agreement a vertical arrangement will not save it from antitrust scrutiny when there is evidence of anticompetitive horizontal effects. For instance, the FTC has stopped exclusive distribution agreements that operated as market allocation schemes between worldwide competitors.
In this situation, the competitors agree not to compete by designating one another as an exclusive distributor for different geographic areas.
Do I have to charge this price? The key word is "suggested. A dealer can set the price at the MSRP or at a different price, as long as the dealer comes to that decision on its own.
However, the manufacturer can decide not to use distributors that do not adhere to its MSRP. I am a manufacturer and I occasionally get complaints from dealers about the retail prices that other dealers are charging for my products.
What should I tell them? Competitors at each level of the supply chain must set prices independently.Product Offering Analysis. Are you matching your product offering against what people want?
– Matching your products’ attributes against what people want? – Research new areas of growth for potential product offerings? – Looking for lower competition and higher customer interest? Learn how to use the marketing mix (often called the 4Ps of Marketing) to get the right combination of place, price, product, and promotion in your business.
offering synonyms, offering pronunciation, offering translation, English dictionary definition of offering. n. 1.
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|attheheels.com | Regulation D Offerings||Notable Quotable Price Discrimination "Price discrimination is the practice of charging different prices to different customers. Despite the name, the practice is usually legal, as long as it's not discriminating based on race, gender, age, etc.|
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(= product) → offre f. Product & service offerings for detailed free business plan guide with template & sample for business plan plus software for financial projections & cash flow forecasting. the act of offering or the condition of being offered (Law) contract law a proposal made by one person that will create a binding contract if accepted unconditionally by the person to whom it is made.
Do we adapt our product to the local market or use a standardised international product? More likely to adapt when. Customers are different- lower level of income, different culture, language, etc.