Queer theory What is post-colonialism? Post-colonialism is specifically the postmodern intellectual discourse that consists of reactions to, and analysis of, the cultural legacy of colonialism and imperialism. In the novel Dracula by Bram Stoker, there is a strong binary opposition between the East and the West.
Modernity is defined as a period or condition loosely identified with the Progressive Era, the Industrial Revolutionor the Enlightenment. In philosophy and critical theory postmodernity refers to the state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernitya historical condition that marks the reasons for the end of modernity.
One "project" of modernity is said by Habermas to have been the fostering of progress by incorporating principles of rationality and hierarchy into public and artistic life. See also postindustrialInformation Age. Lyotard understood modernity as a cultural condition characterized by constant change in the pursuit of progress.
Postmodernity then represents the culmination of this process where constant change has become the status quo and the notion of progress obsolete. Following Ludwig Wittgenstein 's critique of the possibility of absolute and total knowledge, Lyotard further argued that the various metanarratives of progress such as positivist scienceMarxismand structuralism were defunct as methods of achieving progress.
The literary critic Fredric Jameson and the geographer David Harvey have identified postmodernity with " late capitalism " or "flexible accumulation", a stage of capitalism following finance capitalismcharacterised by highly mobile labor and capital and what Harvey called "time and space compression".
They suggest that this coincides with the breakdown of the Bretton Woods system which, they believe, defined the economic order following the Second World War. See also consumerismcritical theory.
Those who generally view modernity as obsolete or an outright failure, a Post industrial society characterisation in humanity's evolution leading to disasters like Auschwitz and Hiroshimasee postmodernity as a positive development. Other philosophers, particularly those seeing themselves as within the modern project, see the state of postmodernity as a negative consequence of holding postmodernist ideas.
Postmodernity, the consequence of holding postmodern ideas, is generally a negative term in this context. Postmodernism Postmodernity is a condition or a state of being associated with changes to institutions and creations Giddensand with social and political results and innovations, globally but especially in the West since the s, whereas postmodernism is an aesthetic, literary, political or social philosophy, the "cultural and intellectual phenomenon", especially since the s' new movements in the arts.
Both of these terms are used by philosophers, social scientists and social critics to refer to aspects of contemporary culture, economics and society that are the result of features of late 20th century and early 21st century life, including the fragmentation of authority and the commoditization of knowledge see " Modernity ".
The terms "postmodernity" and "postmodernism" are often hard to distinguish, the former being often the result of the latter.
The period has had diverse political ramifications: Though none of these institutions entirely embraces all aspects of the postmodern movement in its most concentrated definition they all reflect, or borrow from, some of its core ideas.
Others still contend that modernity ended with the Victorian Age in the s. The first phase of postmodernity overlaps the end of modernity and is regarded by many[ by whom? Television became the primary news source, manufacturing decreased in importance in the economies of Western Europe and the United States but trade volumes increased within the developed core.
In — a crucial cultural explosion took place within the developed world as the baby boom generation, which had grown up with postmodernity as its fundamental experience of society, demanded entrance into the political, cultural and educational power structure. A series of demonstrations and acts of rebellion — ranging from nonviolent and cultural, through violent acts of terrorism — represented the opposition of the young to the policies and perspectives of the previous age.
Opposition to the Algerian War and the Vietnam Warto laws allowing or encouraging racial segregation and to laws which overtly discriminated against women and restricted access to divorceincreased use of marijuana and psychedelicsthe emergence of pop cultural styles of music and drama, including rock music and the ubiquity of stereotelevision and radio helped make these changes visible in the broader cultural context.
This period is associated with the work of Marshall McLuhana philosopher who focused on the results of living in a media culture and argued that participation in a mass media culture both overshadows actual content disseminated and is liberating because it loosens the authority of local social normative standards.
The second phase of postmodernity is defined[ by whom? This has brought producers into conflict with consumers over intellectual capital and intellectual property and led to the creation of a new economy whose supporters argue that the dramatic fall in information costs will alter society fundamentally.
It began to be argued[ by whom? Those holding this position argued that the ability to manipulate items of popular culture, the World Wide Web, the use of search engines to index knowledge, and telecommunications were producing a "convergence" which would be marked by the rise of " participatory culture " in the words of Henry Jenkins and the use of media devicessuch as Apple's iPod.
The simplest, but not necessarily most correct demarcation point of this era is[ according to whom? He predicted that the question of political philosophy had been answered, that large scale wars over fundamental values would no longer arise since "all prior contradictions are resolved and all human needs satisfied.
Descriptions[ edit ] Distinctions in philosophy and critical theory[ edit ] The debate on postmodernity has two distinct elements that are often confused; 1 the nature of contemporary society and 2 the nature of the critique of contemporary society. The first of these elements is concerned with the nature of changes that took place during the late 20th century.
There are three principal analyses. Theorists such as Callinicos and Calhoun offer a conservative position on the nature of contemporary society, downplaying the significance and extent of socio-economic changes and emphasizing a continuity with the past.
Second a range of theorists have tried to analyze the present as a development of the "modern" project into a second, distinct phase that is nevertheless still "modernity": Third are those who argue that contemporary society has moved into a literally post-modern phase distinct from modernity.
The most prominent proponents of this position are Lyotard and Baudrillard.
Another set of issues concerns the nature of critique, often replaying debates over what can be crudely termed universalism and relativismwhere modernism is seen to represent the former and postmodernity the latter.
Seyla Benhabib and Judith Butler pursue this debate in relation to feminist politics, Benhabib arguing that postmodern critique comprises three main elements; an anti-foundationalist concept of the subject and identity, the death of history and of notions of teleology and progress, and the death of metaphysics defined as the search for objective truth.
The denial of normative ideals removes the possibility for utopia, central for ethical thinking and democratic action. Butler responds to Benhabib by arguing that her use of postmodernism is an expression of a wider paranoia over anti-foundationalist philosophy, in particular, poststructuralism.
In reality, these movements are opposed: Lacanian psychoanalysis in France positions itself officially against poststructuralism, that Foucauldian rarely relate to DerridideansThe other are more recent 20th century industrial concerns, with larger industrial buildings associated with chimneys, tanks and containers.
These sites were . POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY MAKES A SHIFT TOWARDS SERVICE SECTOR AND ICT Post industrial society is marked by a transition from a manufacturing-based economy to a service-based economy, a transition that is also connected with subsequent societal restructuring. Post Industrial Society Characterisation Essay POST-INDUSTRIAL SOCIETY While this gives the illusion that the post industrial society is merely service-based, it is still highly connected with those industrial economies to which the manufacturing is outsourced.
Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist after modernity.
(In this context, "modern" is not used in the sense of "contemporary", but merely as a name for a specific period in history.). The author discusses and contrasts two different usages of the phrase “post-industrial society”.
The independent development of these two usages has culminated in the present distinction between post-industrial society as a technological, affluent, service society, and post-industrial society as a more decentralised and ecologically conscious agrarian society.
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