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See Article History Alternative Titles: It is known from archaeological evidence that a highly sophisticated urbanized culture—the Indus civilization —dominated the northwestern part of the subcontinent from about to bce.
From that period on, India functioned as a virtually self-contained political and cultural arena, which gave rise to a distinctive tradition that was associated primarily with Hinduismthe roots of which can largely be traced to the Indus civilization.
Other religions, notably Buddhism and Jainismoriginated in India—though their presence there is now quite small—and throughout the centuries residents of the subcontinent developed a rich intellectual life in such fields as mathematics, astronomy, architecture, literature, music, and the fine arts.
Throughout its history, India was intermittently disturbed by incursions from beyond its northern mountain wall. Especially important was the coming of Islambrought from the northwest by Arab, Turkish, Persian, and other raiders beginning early in the 8th century ce. Eventually, some of those raiders stayed; by the 13th century much of the subcontinent was under Muslim rule, and the number of Muslims steadily increased.
Only after the arrival of the Portuguese navigator Vasco da Gama in and the subsequent establishment of European maritime supremacy in the region did India become exposed to major external influences arriving by sea, a process that culminated in the decline of the ruling Muslim elite and absorption of the subcontinent within the British Empire.
The Taj Mahal in Agra, India, one of the world's great architectural masterpieces. When British rule came to an end inthe subcontinent was partitioned along religious lines into two separate countries—India, with a majority of Hindus, and Pakistanwith a majority of Muslims; the eastern portion of Pakistan later split off to form Bangladesh.
Many British institutions stayed in place such as the parliamentary system of government ; English continued to be a widely used lingua franca; and India remained within the Commonwealth. Hindi became the official language and a number of other local languages achieved official statuswhile a vibrant English-language intelligentsia thrived.
India remains one of the most ethnically diverse countries in the world. Apart from its many religions and sects, India is home to innumerable castes and tribes, as well as to more than a dozen major and hundreds of minor linguistic groups from several language families unrelated to one another.
Religious minorities, including Muslims, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, and Jains, still account for a significant proportion of the population; collectively, their numbers exceed the populations of all countries except China.
Earnest attempts have been made to instill a spirit of nationhood in so varied a population, but tensions between neighbouring groups have remained and at times have resulted in outbreaks of violence. At independence, India was blessed with several leaders of world stature, most notably Mohandas Mahatma Gandhi and Jawaharlal Nehruwho were able to galvanize the masses at home and bring prestige to India abroad.
The country has played an increasing role in global affairs. It is bounded to the northwest by Pakistanto the north by NepalChinaand Bhutan ; and to the east by Myanmar Burma. Bangladesh to the east is surrounded by India to the north, east, and west. The island country of Sri Lanka is situated some 40 miles 65 km off the southeast coast of India across the Palk Strait and Gulf of Mannar.
In area, India ranks as the seventh largest country in the world. India has two union territories composed entirely of islands: When the two finally collided approximately 50 million years agothe northern edge of the Indian-Australian Plate was thrust under the Eurasian Plate at a low angle.
The collision reduced the speed of the oncoming plate, but the underthrusting, or subduction, of the plate has continued into contemporary times. The effects of the collision and continued subduction are numerous and extremely complicated. An important consequence, however, was the slicing off of crustal rock from the top of the underthrusting plate.
Those slices were thrown back onto the northern edge of the Indian landmass and came to form much of the Himalayan mountain system. The new mountains—together with vast amounts of sediment eroded from them—were so heavy that the Indian-Australian Plate just south of the range was forced downward, creating a zone of crustal subsidence.
Continued rapid erosion of the Himalayas added to the sediment accumulation, which was subsequently carried by mountain streams to fill the subsidence zone and cause it to sink more.
Further information on the geology of India is found in the article Asia. That great, geologically young mountain arc is about 1, miles 2, km long, stretching from the peak of Nanga Parbat 26, feet [8, metres] in the Pakistani-administered portion of the Kashmir region to the Namcha Barwa peak in the Tibet Autonomous Region of China.Jan 24, · Political change, structural reform and technological innovation are changing the socio-economic context of India.
Examine how global challenges, national .
1 Role of State Owned Enterprises in India’s Economic Development R K Mishra Economic Development has been the prime concern of the Indian state since the inception of India’s independence in India was born independent with mass poverty, illiteracy. India - the land of spices plays a significant role in the global spices market.
No country in the world produces as many kinds of spices as India. At present, India produces around million tones of different spices valued at approximately billion US $, and holds the premier position in the world spices .
7 recommendations for a balanced global marketing strategy Why global marketing theory often differs from reality On paper, global marketing is undoubtedly a . Fourthly, foreign trade helps a developing country like India in its economic development. Iron and steel industry, has been established due to stored iron-ore and coal.
But for the establishment of this type industry, we have to import technical knowledge from foreign countries. The Trading World of the Indian Ocean. The population of Asia in was five times as big as that of Western Europe ( million compared with 57 million), and the ratio was about the same in It was a very large market with a network of Asian traders operating between East Africa and India, and from Eastern India to Indonesia.