Learn to recognize the signs and how to respond with this guide. According to the NIH, more than 33, Americans died from opioid overdoses in alone. As primary care physicians, optometrists can play a role in recognizing damage or dysfunction to either ocular structures or the components of the visual pathway these drugs cause and counseling patients in these circumstances.
For hardcore marijuana journalists, the kind of scribblers and photographers crazy enough to endure intrigue and danger in the seamy underworld of marijuana production and smuggling, going to Morocco is like making a pilgrimage to Mecca.
Morocco somewhat resembles Mecca, with street signs encoded with ancient symbols and mosques on every corner, with the muezzin singing prayers five times a day from those mosques. The prayer songs echo in your head like hallucinatory scenes from the classic William Burroughs novel later made into a fantastic movie Naked Lunch, which was written while Burroughs was in Tangiers in a weeks-long trance induced by eating Moroccan hashish.
Nobody knows for sure how much marijuana is grown in Morocco, how much land is devoted to cannabis cultivation, or how much Maroc hashish is exported each year, but estimates from the European Union, the United Nations and the CIA claim the country produces at least 30, pounds of hashish annually.
Satellite photos and other data acquired in the last decade indicate that approximatelyMoroccan acres are under cultivation during the pot-growing season that generally lasts from March to early September.
The Rif is a spectacular geologic feature, stripped bare of its natural vegetation by centuries of overpopulation and irrational land use practices, so that the raw undulations of stone, peaks, valleys and cliffs are seen with stark clarity.
Riffies are literally a breed apart. Their culture is tribal, based on the tradition of Berber warriors who have fought kings and drug warriors, forcing invaders down the mountains toward the Atlantic Ocean and Mediterranean Sea which border the country.
The Rif has its own music, languages, and customs. Outsiders are not necessary or welcome. Riffies grow, process and transfer cannabis products to other Moroccans and to Europeans, who are largely responsible for getting Maroc resins across the water to Europe.
Ever since I became a marijuana journalist I wanted to emulate the heroic exploits of those who went before me to Morocco. I wanted to follow in their reckless footsteps while avoiding the harrowing experiences most of them reported? So it was a bitter twist of fateful irony that Allah designated to be my year to first visit Morocco.
A handful of kif powder? From Allah to al Hoceima My consternation about going to Morocco caused me to literally wait to the last minute before deciding to drive all night to my departure airport. I made it there with only minutes to spare and boarded a Royal Air Maroc plane.
I was at their mercy; if they really desired to harm an American, I realized, they could do it easily. Thank Allah my fears were unjustified; we landed at a remote, little-used airport in Northern Morocco after a flight that was notable only for the shy, friendly smiles and inquiring glances of my fellow passengers.
The airport was guarded by security forces. Unlike the US, Morocco does not pretend to be a democracy. It is a kingdom, ruled by King Mohammed VI, the latest in a long line of Muslim royalty and rulers who ultimately trace their reign back to AD, when the Arab conquest of Morocco began and when the Islamic religion was first forced on Morocco.
Soldiers guarded the airplane, watched me with unconcealed suspicion, and pointed their guns at me when I asked if I could take a picture of the airplane. My European contact and his Moroccan guide arrived. We piled into an oversized sport utility vehicle and left the airport, soon to be repeatedly stopped and then waved on by several sets of soldiers and police officers whose habit it is to stand in the middle of the road and randomly stop vehicles and pedestrians.
Before I committed to the journey, my host had promised a super-stony time in Northern Africa. A few men spoke English; they told me cannabis and homegrown tobacco were illegal, but that penalties for illegal tobacco were far worse than penalties for marijuana!
Our guide went into the bowels of cannabis caf? In fact, people who purchase dirhams with foreign currency must register the transaction with the government. My companions sat down, ordered mint tea, and quickly began to roll sloppy tobacco cigarettes into which they crumbled morsels of hash.
I took a deep puff off the hash-tobacco cigarette and immediately felt tobacco effects, which made me dizzy and nauseous. I did not feel high at all. My companions gave me a ten-gram lump of hashish but could not find a pipe for me to smoke it in. For the next three pipeless days, I watched them smoke hash mixed with tobacco, while I looked at my lump of hash in despair.
The absence of women was as strange to me as the Arabic lettering on street signs. Instead, he disdainfully dismissed her with a cruel wave of the hand.
Visibly stung and humiliated, and with tears in her eyes, she looked to me for assistance, then put her hands to her heart and ran away.
The plants are hardy but not grown to peak potency. That afternoon, as a cold wind swept in from the hinterlands and people trudged along darkened lanes toward mute hovels carved into foreboding terrain that included open sewage pipes and terraced olive gardens, the Moroccan guide piloted our vehicle toward the mountains 90 miles away.
In my pocket was the plastic-wrapped chunk of hashish, unsmoked, hardened, that I so longed to smoke. The Moroccan guide promised I would soon be able to procure a hash pipe at a caf?Kif in the Rif: An examination of the illicit drug trade in Morocco Muslim North Africa Graham Mattison Research Paper 5/16/ The economic disparity between western Morocco’s upper class, urban elites, and eastern Morocco’s lower class, rural poor, has led to an increasingly problematic illicit drug trade over the last half century.
The Kif in the Rif Kif has been widely smoked by Moroccan men especially since the Spanish conquerors began to encourage its cultivation in an effort to keep the peace. Today, nearly all of Morocco’s cannabis production can be found in the Rif Mountains, which stretch from the Mediterranean Sea to the port city of Tangier.
The Health Effects of Cannabis April 26, by drsulak 1 Comment The following is a brief summary of the most common physiologic effects of cannabis on each of our bodily systems. KIF IN THE RIF.
Posted Then again, I am in the Rif Valley, which by a perfect coincidence of rhyme, is the primary cultivation area of kif, the Moroccan word forts nnabis. According to most estimates (and with something like cannabis, it only ever can be an estimate).
and scotopic sensitivity in kif smokers of the Rif mountains of northern Morocco symmetry and reaction, and funduscopic examination. All were tested experimentally after their ﬁrst kif exposure of the day and a uniform cannabis/Nicotiana rustica mixture was employed.
Each subject was blindfolded for . If you've never read a Richard Flanagan book, you might be inclined to think First Person is some kind of thriller, based on the blurb alone. It isn't, rather it is very literary - by which I mean it consists mainly of a lot of introspection by the main character, Kif Kehlmann, who is himself a Flanagan proxy/5.