North Carolina was the first American territory the English attempted to colonize. Sir Walter Raleigh, for whom the state capital is named, chartered two colonies on the North Carolina then Virginia coast in the late s, both ending in failure. The demise of one, the "Lost Colony" of Roanoke Island, remains one of the great mysteries of American history. Dare County is named for her.
Introduction Eighteenth-century American culture moved in competing directions.
Commercial, military, and cultural ties between Great Britain and the North American colonies tightened while a new distinctly American culture began to form and bind together colonists from New Hampshire to Georgia. Immigrants from other European nations meanwhile combined with Native Americans and enslaved Africans to create an increasingly diverse colonial population.
All—men and women, European, Native American, and African—led distinct lives and wrought new distinct societies.
While life in the thirteen colonies was shaped in part by English practices and participation in the larger Atlantic World, emerging cultural patterns increasingly transformed North America into something wholly different.
Consumption and Trade in the British Atlantic Transatlantic trade greatly enriched Britain, but it also created high standards of living for many North American colonists. This two-way relationship reinforced the colonial feeling of commonality with British culture.
It was not until trade relations, disturbed by political changes and the demands of warfare, became strained in the s that colonists began to question these ties.
During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, improvements in manufacturing, transportation, and the availability of credit increased the opportunity for colonists to purchase consumer goods.
Instead of making their own tools, clothes, and utensils, colonists increasingly purchased luxury items made by specialized artisans and manufacturers.
As the incomes of Americans rose and the prices of these commodities fell, these items shifted from luxuries to common goods.
Britain relied on the colonies as a source of raw materials, such as lumber and tobacco. Americans engaged with new forms of trade and financing that increased their ability to buy British-made goods. But the ways in which colonists paid for these goods varied sharply from those in Britain.
When settlers first arrived in North America, they typically carried very little hard or metallic British money with them. In Virginia, for example, the colonial legislature stipulated a rate of exchange for tobacco, standardizing it as a form of money in the colony. Commodities could be cumbersome and difficult to transport, so a system of notes developed.
These notes allowed individuals to deposit a certain amount of tobacco in a warehouse and receive a note bearing the value of the deposit that could be traded as money. Incolonial Massachusetts became the first place in the Western world to issue paper bills to be used as money.
While these notes provided colonists with a much-needed medium for exchange, it was not without its problems. Currency that worked in Virginia might be worthless in Pennsylvania. Colonists and officials in Britain debated whether it was right or desirable to use mere paper, as opposed to gold or silver, as a medium of exchange.
Paper money tended to lose value quicker than coins and was often counterfeited. Paper money was not the only medium of exchange, however. Colonists also used metal coins. Barter and the extension of credit—which could take the form of bills of exchange, akin to modern-day personal checks—remained important forces throughout the colonial period.
Still, trade between colonies was greatly hampered by the lack of standardized money. Businesses on both sides of the Atlantic advertised both their goods and promises of obtaining credit.
The consistent availability of credit allowed families of modest means to buy consumer items previously available only to elites. A seat it is for a noble Man, a Prince.
A writer for the Boston Evening Post remarked on this new practice of purchasing status: Of course, the thirteen continental colonies were not the only British colonies in the Western Hemisphere. In fact, they were considerably less important to the Crown than the sugar-producing islands of the Caribbean, including Jamaica, Barbados, the Leeward Islands, Grenada, St.North Carolina's law remained effective until , when the last recorded sterilizations were performed (State Library, “History,” p.
1). Finally, on April 4, , the North Carolina Senate voted unanimously to overturn it (“Bill to Overturn Eugenics Law Passes State Senate,” p.
1). The idea that U.S. expansion across North America was justifiable and right because they were civilizing the savage native people there Foreign Miner's Tax Tax passed in .
In North Carolina Republicans gained control of the state government, and the Federalist Party declined rapidly after , making North Carolina a one-party state. Poor Carolina, – In ethnohistorian Henry Dobyns estimated that there were between 9,, and 12,, people north of the Rio Grande before contact; in he revised that number upward to 18,, people.
Open Government Learn about open records laws, open meetings and more. About NC Scenic beauty, a moderate climate, a culture rich in history and the arts, and world-class sports and recreational opportunities make North Carolina an exceptional place to live and do business.
Spain, France, and England eventually explored and claimed parts of what is now the Southern United States, and the cultural influences of each can still be seen in the region today.
In the centuries since, the history of the Southern United States has recorded a large number of important events, including the American Revolution, the American Civil War, the ending of slavery, and the American Civil Rights .