The Search For Modern China. The Oxford History of the British Empire: Definition and Historical Context Imperialism: He split this broad concept into three separate and more manageable subcategories.
While the British exported to China luxury items like clocks and watches, there remained an overwhelming imbalance in trade. China developed a strong demand for silver, which was a difficult commodity for the British to come by in large quantities. The counterbalance of trade came with exports of opium to China, opium being legal in Britain and grown in significant quantities in the UK  and later in far greater quantities in India.
The First Opium War which ensued lasted from to Britain occupied the island of Hong Kong on 25 January and used it as a military staging point. Christian missionaries founded many schools and churches in Hong Kong.
The college was the forerunner of the School of Medicine of the University of Hong Kongwhich was established in The four students were known by the Qing as the Four Bandits. Sun led the Chinese Revolution ofwhich changed China from an empire to a republic.
In Aprilthe residents of Kam Tin rebelled against the colonial government. They defended themselves in Kat Hing Waia walled village.
After several unsuccessful attacks by the British troops, the iron gate was blasted open. The gate was then shipped to London for exhibition.
Under the demand of the Tang clan inthe gate was eventually returned in by the 16th governor, Sir Reginald Stubbs. Soon after the first gas company in came the first electric company in Rickshaws gave way to busesferriestrams and airlines.
Western-style education made advances through the efforts of Frederick Stewart. The seeds of the future financial city were sown with the first large scale bank.
It provided the pretext for racial zoning with the creation of Peak Reservation Ordinance  and recognising the importance of the first hospital.
On the outbreak of World War I infear of a possible attack on the colony led to an exodus of 60, Chinese. However, Hong Kong's population continued to boom in the following decades fromin toin Nonetheless the crisis in mainland China in the s and s left Hong Kong vulnerable to a strategic invasion from Imperial Japan.
British lease of Kowloon and the New Territories[ edit ] During the second half of the 19th century the British had grown increasingly worried about the security of their free port at Hong Kong.
It was an isolated island, surrounded by areas still under Chinese control. The British decided the answer would be to lease a buffer zone around Hong Kong that would make the island less vulnerable to invasion.
This agreement was part of the Convention of Beijing that ended that conflict. Inthe British and Chinese governments signed the Second Convention of Peking, which included a year lease agreement for the islands surrounding Hong Kong, called the "New Territories. In return, China got a promise that the islands would be returned to it after 99 years.
China promised to implement a "One Country, Two Systems" regime, under which for fifty years Hong Kong citizens could continue to practice capitalism and political freedoms forbidden on the mainland. So, on July 1,the lease ended and the government of Great Britain transferred control of Hong Kong and surrounding territories to the People's Republic of China.
Japanese occupation era s [ edit ] Main articles: The period, called '3 years and 8 months' halted the economy. Japan achieved air superiority on the first day of battle and the defensive forces were outnumbered. The British and the Indians retreated from the Gin Drinker's Line and consequently from Kowloon under heavy aerial bombardment and artillery barrage.
Fierce fighting continued on Hong Kong Island ; the only reservoir was lost. Canadian Winnipeg Grenadiers fought at the crucial Wong Nai Chong Gapwhich was the passage between the north and the secluded southern parts of the island. On 25 Decemberreferred to as Black Christmas by locals, British colonial officials headed by the Governor of Hong KongMark Aitchison Youngsurrendered in person at the Japanese headquarters on the third floor of the Peninsula Hotel.
Isogai Rensuke became the first Japanese governor of Hong Kong.
During the Japanese occupation, hyper-inflation and food rationing became the norm of daily lives. It became unlawful to own Hong Kong Dollarswhich were replaced by the Japanese Military Yena currency without reserves issued by the Imperial Japanese Army administration.
Although there is a lack of testimonial evidence from the female victims of Hong Kong, according to some eyewitnesses thousands of females could have been raped. During the three and half years of occupation by the Japanese.The Periphery of China --Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, and Mongolia.
The principle behind this page and this index is that of China as the "Middle Kingdom", with the rest of the world arranged around it. Jul 21, · Hong Kong woke up to the last day of British colonial rule on Monday.
With only hours to go, the last touches were being put on preparations to hand Hong Kong . Although British did not conquer China territoriality, however they defeated the Chinese in the two opium wars, which gave the British free access to narcotic trade to China.
The first opium war led to the treaty of Nanking, and annexation of Hong Kong. HONG KONG PRE-CHINA TAKEOVER In a part of town, there was a carnival atmosphere. In another, a somber rally and march followed by a candlelight vigil. Its s clear that one year before China takes control, the people of Hong Kong are divided in their feelings.
PART I. History of Britain's First Opium Wars. Introduction This is the setting for what follows below: narcotics are pouring in from abroad through a well-organized, efficient group of smugglers. On July 1, , Hong Kong was peaceably handed over to China in a ceremony attended by numerous Chinese and British dignitaries.